Russian video course by Red Kalinka

Russian course
Basic Russian for beginners

Lesson 10: Review of lessons 6 - 9


In this lesson you will learn:

  • the most important points from lessons 6 to 9
  • the case you already know: the nominative
Useful phrase in Russian

Useful phrase in Russian

Listen and repeat the sentences you have learnt in the last 4 lessons:


Lesson 6

lesson 06

Lesson 7

lesson 07

Lesson 8

lesson 08

Lesson 9

lesson 09
Russian vocabulary

Russian vocabulary

Read, listen and repeat the basic vocabulary of this lesson:

Wh-questions in Russian

In English the wh-questions are those questions that start with questions words like what, when, how, who, which, where or why. In this course you have already learnt all of them. Here they are:

English

Russian

Pronunciation

What?

Что?

shto?

Who?

Кто?

kto?

How?

Как?

kak?

When?

Когда́?

kag-dá?

Where?

Где?

gdye?

Why?

Почему́?

pa-chye-mú?

Russian vocabulary

Russian vocabulary

Read, listen and repeat the basic vocabulary of this lesson:

Relatives

In lesson 8 you have learnt how to say the name of different relatives in Russian. Let's see some more:

English

Russian

Pronunciation

grandfather

де́душка

dyé-dush-ka

grandmother

ба́бушка

bá-bush-ka

father / mother

оте́ц / мать

a-tyéts / mat'

parents

роди́тели

ra-dí-tye-li

son / daughter

сын / дочь

syn / doch

brother / sister

брат / сестра́

brat / syes-trá

uncle / aunt

дя́дя / тётя

dyá-dya / tyó-tya

cousin (male)

двою́родный брат

dva-yú-rad-nyj brat

cousin (female)

двою́родная сестра́

dva-yú-rad-na-ya syes-trá

nephew

племя́нник

plye-myá-nnik

niece

племя́нница

plye-myá-nni-tsa

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Russian grammar

Russian grammar

Read the following grammar explanations for this lesson:

How to form the past tense

irst, you remove "ть" from the verb (for example ду́мать / ду́ма-). Second, you add:

  • for masculine singular (ду́мал)
  • -ла for feminine singular (ду́мала)
  • -ло for neuter singular (ду́мало)
  • -ли for every form of plural (ду́мали) y and for formal forms (both in singular and plural).

How to build reflexive verbs

We build a reflexive verb adding either сь or ся.

  • We use сь when the verb ends in vowel.
  • We use ся when the verb does not end in vowel.

Possessive pronouns in Russian

In lesson 8 we have seen a complete explanation about them. Here they are:

Singular

мой / моя́ / моё

твой / твоя́ / твоё

его́

её

наш / на́ша / на́ше

ваш / ва́ша / ва́ше

их

Plural

мои́

твои́

его́

её

на́ши

ва́ши

их

English

my

your

his

her

our

your

their

The Russian cases

We have learnt that Russian is a language where some words are "declined" (or transformed).

In English, the pronouns undergo transformations to mark different functions in a sentence:

  • Subject: he (he is my friend)
  • Object: him (I asked him something)

In Russian these declensions are more common. They are sorted in "grammatical cases":

  • Nominative
  • Genitive
  • Dative
  • Accusative
  • Instrumental
  • Prepositional

The nominative case

The case represent the "normal" word, without transformations, as in appears in a dictionary.

A noun, pronoun or adjective in the nominative case mark the subject in a sentence. It is the noun that "is doing" what the verb says.

Examples (the nominative is different colour):

  • Мой брат идёт в кино́
  • My brother goes to the cinema

  • Э́то моя́ кни́га
  • This is my book

  • Мне нра́вятся хоро́шие фи́льмы
  • I like good movies

Let's learn the cases

WHAT IS A CASE? In English we change a word to express "singular" or "plural" (car/cars, foot/feet). In Russian words can be changed to express other concepts (subject, direct object, possession,...). Those changes are called "cases".

Do cases exist in english? Yes, but they are rare and are not called "cases". For example, the pronoun "he" changes into "him" in sentences like "I saw him" (in this example "him" is in the accusative case).

Why do cases exist? Each language evolves differently. In English there are articles (a/an, the), but not in Russian. In Russian there are cases, but not in English.

We have created a course to help you understand Russian cases. Here you can go to lesson 1

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