1. USEFUL PHRASE IN RUSSIAN
Listen and repeat the following sentence:
- MY NAME IS NATASHA, AND WHAT'S YOUR NAME?
- МЕНЯ ЗОВУТ НАТАША. А КАК ТЕБЯ ЗОВУТ?
(mye-nya za-vut na-ta-sha. a kak tye-bya za-vut?)
Russian cases: In this lesson you will see that sometimes instead of saying я, we say меня or мне. That is because я is sometimes the "direct object" in the sentence (and turns into меня) or the "indirect object" (and turns into мне).
In English he transforms into him (direct object) in a sentence like "I saw him".
If you want to learn more, visit our course on Russian Cases. Go to lesson 1.
2. RUSSIAN VOCABULARY
Read, listen and repeat the basic Russian vocabulary of this lesson:
3. DIALOGUES IN RUSSIAN
These Russian dialogues will help you memorise this lesson's vocabulary:
- zna-yesh? on mnye nye nra-vit-sya.
- no on ska-zaL mnye, shto ty kra-si-va-ya.
- On e-ta ska-zaL? A ya ska-zhu tye-bye shto dlya mye-nya on nye-kra-si-vyj.
- pri-vyet. mye-nya za-vut maj-kL, a kak tye-bya za-vut?
- pri-vyet. mye-nya za-vut na-ta-sha.
- ya vi-dyeL tye-bya vchye-ra.
- prav-da? ty vi-dyeL mye-nya i ty mnye ni-chye-vo nye ska-zaL?
- ya ni-chye-vo nye ska-zaL tye-bye, pa-ta-mu shta moj rus-kij nye-ha-ro-shij.
- no e-ta nye prav-da. ty o-chyen' ha-ra-sho ga-va-rish.
4. RUSSIAN GRAMMAR
Read the following grammar explanations for this lesson:
What is "to decline"?
When you decline a word you modify it. After that, the word has a new function in a sentence.
In English we don't decline nouns:
- Subject: The man is big
- Object: I saw the man yesterday.
However, pronouns are declined:
- Subject: He is big.
- Object: I saw him yesterday.
This modification is called "case". So, you could say that "him" is a case of the pronoun "he".
Some opposites (antonyms) in Russian
In Russian you can find adjectives like these:
good (хороший) - bad (плохой)
good-looking (красивый) - ugly (уродливый).
But there is an easier way to create the opposite of an adjective: simply adding "не" to the adjective:
хороший (good) - нехороший (not good = bad)
красивый (good-looking) - некрасивый (not good-looking = ugly)
Pay also attention to the transformation of the following particles when adding "ни":
когда (when) - никогда (never)
где (where) - нигде (nowhere)
кто (who) - никто (nobody)
Examples of cases seen in this lesson
In Russian we decline pronouns, nouns and adjectives. In other words, pronouns, nouns and adjectives can have "cases".
Now you will see examples of cases from this lesson's dialogues. They are cases of the pronouns you already know (я, ты, он,...). In this lesson you have seen, for example, меня / мне (cases of "я") or тебя / тебе (cases of "ты").
Example taken from dialogue 1:
- You saw me yesterday?
- Ты видела меня вчера?
"Me" is the accusative case of "I". In English we can't say "You saw I yesterday?", we have to transform "I" into "me".
"Меня" is the accusative case of "я". In Russian we can't say "Ты видела Я вчера?", we have to transform "я" into "меня".
Example taken from dialogue 3:
- I saw you yesterday.
- Я видел тебя вчера.
In this example "you" doesn't change. We can say "You have money" and "Mary saw you".
Pay attention that this doesn't happen to "I", because we say "I have money" and "Mary saw me" (instead of "Mary saw I").
In Russian "тебя" is the accusative case of "ты". We can't say "Я видела ты": we have to transform "ты" into "тебя".
Check how much you have learnt in this lesson: