RUSSIAN COURSE Basic Russian for beginners
Lección 14: NOW I'M GOING HOME. I ALWAYS GO HOME ON FOOTIn this lesson you will learn:
- the verbs of motion in Russian.
Useful phrase in Russian
Listen and repeat the following sentence:
- СЕЙЧАС Я ИДУ ДОМОЙ. Я ВСЕГДА ХОЖУ ДОМОЙ ПЕШКОМ.
(sej-chas ya i-du da-moj. ya vsyeg-da ha-zhu da-moj pyesh-kom.)
- NOW I’M GOING HOME. I ALWAYS GO HOME ON FOOT
The verbs of motion in Russian: As you have seen in previous lessons, the Russian verbs give more information than the verbs in English. That’s why to express the meaning of a single verb in Russian, we need many words in English.
The Russian verbs of motion aren’t an exception. In this lesson you will learn important points about them.
Read, listen and repeat the basic Russian vocabulary of this lesson:
VERBS OF MOTION: IMPERFECTIVE
In this lesson you will see Russian verbs of motion both perfective and imperfective.
As you can see, the perfective verbs are formed adding the prefix -по to the imperfective verb.
Russian: imperfective verbs of motion
*En la sección de gramática podrás ver la conjugación de estos verbos
These Russian dialogues will help you memorise this lesson’s vocabulary:
Now you are going to see three dialogues with Russian verbs of motion.
I thought that you never (usually) travel on the underground.
Read the following grammar explanations for this lesson:
RUSSIAN VERBS OF MOTION
We are going to have a look at the Russian verbs that mean “to go”, “to run”, “to fly”,… that is, Russian verbs of motion.
For each English verb of motion, we have two verbs in Russian. Look here at these two meanings of the verb “to go”:
- I usually go to the cinema with Pedro –> Here we express a routine, a movement that we usually/frequently do. We make a “multidirectional motion” (return trip), which is going from home to the cinema and back home.
- I’m going to the cinema with Pedro –> Here we express that we are “on our way” to the cinema. We make a “unidirectional motion” (one-way trip), which is going from home to the cinema.
As you can see in both cases we use the same English verb (to go), but in Russian we use two different verbs:
- I usually go to the cinema = Я хожу в кино (verb ходить)
- I’m going to the cinema = Я иду в кино (verb идти)
- ходить: means “to go regularly, to go there and return”. It’s a multidireccional verb of motion.
- идти: means “to be going there, to go on a single direction”. It’s a unidireccional verb of movement.
- As you can see in both cases we use the same English verb (to go), but in Russian we use two different verbs:
Multidirectional and unidirectional verbs of motion
As you can see, we have two kind of verbs of motion:
- Multidirectional verbs of motion, which mean “to go often/regularly/frequently, to go and return”.
- Unidirectional verbs of motion, which mean “to be going somewhere”.
- We take another example: “
Mark flies to Madrid
- …Mark usually/regularly flies to Madrid, we would use the multidirectional verb лета́ть: “Марк лета́ет в Мадрид”
- …Mark is flying to Madrid, we would use the unidireccional verb лете́ть: “Марк лети́т в Мадрид”
- “. If we want to say…
Russian verbs of motion in the past
Have a look at these two sentences and how we translate them into Russian:
…We used to go to the cinema. Many times we did the trip home–>cinema–>home. That’s a multidirectional motion.
In this case we use the multidirectional verb of motion ходить and we say in Russian “Мы ходили в кино“.
…We were going to the cinema. We were doing the trip home–>cinema, we were on our way to the cinema.
That’s a unidireccional motion. We use the unidirectional verb of motion идти and we say in Russian “Мы шли в кино“.
*Remember that the verb идти has irregular past forms: шёл (masculine), шла (feminine), шли (plural).
As you have seen, for each English verb of motion (to go, to run, to fly,…) there are two Russian verbs:
- Multidirectional verb of motion: This verb means “to make regularly a movement” (usually to go to a place and back).
* If the verb is in the present, we talk about a movement that we usually do.
* If the verb is in the past, we talk about a movement that we used to do.
* If the verb is in the past, it also means that we have been in a place (only once) / we went there and came back.
- Unidirectional verb of motion: This verb means “to be moving in a single direction”
* If the verb is in the present, we talk about the movement that we are doing right now.
* If the verb is in the past, we talk about that movement that we were doing in that moment.
RUSSIAN VERBS OF MOTION CONJUGATED
MULTIDIRECTIONAL VERBS OF MOTION
The following verbs express motion The following verbs express motion (usually “go there and back” / “return trip” / “round-trip”).
- In the present: they express that you usually go (and come back) regularly to a place.
- In the past: they express that you used to go (and come back) regularly to a place.
UNIDIRECTIONAL VERBS OF MOTION
The following verbs express motion in a single direction (that is, the direction you are moving towards).
- In the present: they express that you are moving (going to a place) now.
- In the past: they express that you were moving (going to a place) in the past.
Perfective verbs of motion
Every verb of motion that you have seen in the tables above are imperfective (no matter if they are multidirectional or unidirectional). If we take a unidirectional verb and we add the prefix -по, we get a perfective verb. But, the same will not happen with a multidirectional verb: if we add -по the verb is still imperfective.
In the dialogues section we have seen some examples of these perfective verbs highlighted in red.
The perfective verbs of motion that you have seen in the lesson are:
- пойти́ (to go on foot)
- пое́хать (to travel / to move using a vehicle)
- полете́ть (to fly)
*to conjugate these verbs, you one have to take the verb from the table above and add -по.
What happens when there is not a final destination?
In all the examples we have studied we talk about “to go to the cinema” o “to fly to Madrid”. That is, we talked about going to a precise destination.
But we could also talk about movements as in “I’m walking on the park” or “I’m running on the beach”. That is, we would talk about moving without any particular destination. In these cases we use multidirectional verbs:
- Я хожу́ по па́рку: I’m walking in the park. Unidirectional: Я иду́ в парк: I’m walking to the park.
- Я бе́гаю на стадио́не: I’m running in the stadium. Unidirecional: Я бегу́ на стадио́н: I’m running to the stadium.
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¿Cuál de estos dos verbos significa “ir” y es imperfectivo?
¿Qué tipo de verbo usaríamos para decir “estoy yendo al colegio”?
¿Qué tipo de verbo usaríamos para decir “voy al colegio todos los días”?
Traduce “Мы ходим в кино”
Traduce “Estoy corriendo a casa”
LAST LESSON OF OUR BASIC RUSSIAN COURSE
You have just finished the last lesson of our course of basic Russian. Congratulations! Now you have achieved a good basis to carry on learning Russian. Try now lesson 1 of our course
on Russian cases. Good luck!